|Published in||Climate of the Past, v. 13(4):345-358.|
Campos, M. C., Chiessi, C. M., Voigt, I., Piola, A. R., Kuhnert, H,, Mulitza, S.
School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 03828-000, Brazil MARUM &ndash Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Bremen, 28359, Germany Servicio de Hidrograﬁa Naval (SHN), Buenos Aires, C1270ABV, Argentina Dept. Ciencias de la Atmósfera y los Océanos, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C1428 EHA, and Instituto
Abrupt millennial-scale climate change events of the last deglaciation (i.e. Heinrich Stadial 1 and the Younger Dryas) were accompanied by marked increases in atmospheric CO2 (CO2atm) and decreases in its stable carbon isotopic ratios (&delta¹³C), i.e. &delta¹³CO2atm, presumably due to outgassing from the ocean. However, information on the preceding Heinrich Stadials during the last glacial period is scarce. Here we present &delta¹³C records from two species of planktonic foraminifera from the western South Atlantic that reveal major decreases (up to 1 &permil) during Heinrich Stadials 3 and 2. These &delta¹³C decreases are most likely related to millennial-scale periods of weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and the consequent increase (decrease) in CO2atm (&delta¹³CO2atm). We hypothesise two mechanisms that could account for the decreases observed in our records, namely strengthening of Southern Ocean deep-water ventilation and weakening of the biological pump. Additionally, we suggest that air&ndashsea gas exchange could have contributed to the observed &delta¹³C decreases. Together with other lines of evidence, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that the CO2 added to the atmosphere during abrupt millennial-scale climate change events of the last glacial period also originated in the ocean and reached the atmosphere by outgassing. The temporal evolution of &delta¹³C during Heinrich Stadials 3 and 2 in our records is characterized by two relative minima separated by a relative maximum. This w structure is also found in North Atlantic and South American records, further suggesting that such a structure is a pervasive feature of Heinrich Stadial 2 and, possibly, also Heinrich Stadial 3.