|Published in||Lancet, v. 392(10164): 2553-2566.|
Aldridge, R.W., Nellums, L.B., Bartlett, S., Barr, A.L., Patel, P., Burns, R., Hargreaves, S., Miranda, J.J., Tollman, S, Friedland, J.S., Abubakar, I.
Centre for Public Health Data Science, Institute of Health Informatics and Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK Institute of Infection and Immunity, St George&rsquos, University of London, London, UK International Health Unit, Section of Infectious Diseases, Imperial College London, London, UK Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK CRONICAS Center of Excellence in Chronic Diseases and Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana
|Global patterns of mortality in international migrants a systematic review and meta analysis.pdf|
258 million people reside outside their country of birth however, to date no global systematic reviews or meta-analyses of mortality data for these international migrants have been done. We aimed to review and synthesise available mortality data on international migrants. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases for observational studies, systematic reviews, and randomised controlled trials published between Jan 1, 2001, and March 31, 2017, without language restrictions. We included studies reporting mortality outcomes for international migrants of any age residing outside their country of birth. Studies that recruited participants exclusively from intensive care or high dependency hospital units, with an existing health condition or status, or a particular health exposure were excluded. We also excluded studies limited to maternal or perinatal outcomes. We screened studies using systematic review software and extracted data from published reports. The main outcomes were all-cause and International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision (ICD-10) cause-specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and absolute mortality rates. We calculated summary estimates using random-effects models. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42017073608. Of the 12 480 articles identified by our search, 96 studies were eligible for inclusion. The studies were geographically diverse and included data from all global regions and for 92 countries. 5464 mortality estimates for more than 15·2 million migrants were included, of which 5327 (97%) were from high-income countries, 115 (2%) were from middle-income countries, and 22 (<1%) were from low-income countries. Few studies included mortality estimates for refugees (110 estimates), asylum seekers (144 estimates), or labour migrants (six estimates). The summary estimate of all-cause SMR for international migrants was lower than one when compared with the general population in destination countries (0·70 [95% CI 0·65-0·76] I2=99·8%). All-cause SMR was lower in both male migrants (0·72 [0·63-0·81] I2=99·8%) and female migrants (0·75 [0·67-0·84] I2=99·8%) compared with the general population. A mortality advantage was evident for refugees (SMR 0·50 [0·46-0·54] I2=89·8%), but not for asylum seekers (1·05 [0·89-1·24] I2=54·4%), although limited data was available on these groups. SMRs for all causes of death were lower in migrants compared with the general populations in the destination country across all 13 ICD-10 categories analysed, with the exception of infectious diseases and external causes. Heterogeneity was high across the majority of analyses. Point estimates of all-cause age-standardised mortality in migrants ranged from 420 to 874 per 100 000 population.