|Published in||Water 10(11):1578|
Harmon T RL Smyth S Chandra D Conde R Dhungel J Escobar N Hoyos JP Lozoya M Nin GM Perillo S Pincetl MC Piccolo B Reid JA Rusak F Scordo MI Velez SR Villamizar BWemple M Zilio
Thomas C. Harmon 1,, Robyn L. Smyth 2 , Sudeep Chandra 3, Daniel Conde 4,18, Ramesh Dhungel 5, Jaime Escobar 6,7 , Natalia Hoyos 8 , Juan Pablo Lozoya 4, Mariana Nin 4, Gerardo M.E. Perillo 9, Stephanie Pincetl 10, M. Cintia Piccolo 9, Brian Reid 11, James A. Rusak 12,13 , Facundo Scordo 9, Maria I. Velez 14, Sandra R. Villamizar 15, Beverley Wemple 16 and Mariana Zilio 17
1 Environmental Systems Graduate Program, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering,
|IAI Project||CRN3038 - SAFER (Sensing the Americas’ Freshwater|
|Harmon et al.pdf|
In this work, we develop and test proxy-based diagnostic tools for comparing freshwater ecosystem services (FWES) risks across an international array of freshwater ecosystems. FWES threats are increasing rapidly under pressure from population, climate change, pollution, land use change, and other factors. We identified spatially explicit FWES threats estimates (referred to as threat benchmarks) and extracted watershed-specific values for an array of aquatic ecosystems in the Western Hemisphere (Ramsar sites). We compared these benchmark values to values extracted for sites associated with an international FWES threat investigation. The resulting benchmark threats appeared to provide a meaningful context for the diagnostic assessment of study site selection by revealing gaps in coverage of the underlying socio-environmental problem. In an effort to simplify the method, we tested regularly updated environmental and socioeconomic metrics as potential proxies for the benchmark threats using regression analysis. Three category proxies, aggregated from (i) external (global to regional, climate-related), (ii) internal (watershed management-related), and (iii) socioeconomic and governance related proxies produced strong relationships with water supply threat benchmarks, but only weak relationships with biodiversity-related and nutrient regulation benchmark threats. Our results demonstrate the utility of advancing global FWES status and threat benchmarks for organizing coordinated research efforts and prioritizing decisions with regard to international socio-environmental problems.