The São Paulo School of Advanced Science on Climate Change: Scientific basis, adaptation, vulnerability and mitigation was held on 03 to 15 July 2017 at the University de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, Brazil. The School was organized by the Interdisciplinary Climate Investigation Center (INCLINE) and the Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research (IAI), and sponsored by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP), Pró Reitoria de Pesquisa/University of São Paulo (PRP/USP), IAI and Santander.
Monday, July 3rd
Tuesday, July 4th
Wednesday, July 5th
Thursday, July 6th
Friday, July 7th
Monday, July 10th
Tuesday, July 11th
Thursday, July 13th
Friday, July 14th
Saturday, July 15th
The course was organized around five major themes:
(1) Observations and future projections (scientific basis);
(4) Adaptation and mitigation; and
(5) the Paris Agreement: Are 1.5 degrees a reasonable limit?
The 2-week course included theoretical classes, work in groups, a poster session, science-policy discussions, and visits to key institutions in the State of São Paulo conducting climate change research with policy applications.
– Introduction: indicators of climate change and treatment of uncertainties;
– Observations: atmosphere, ocean and surface;
– Detection and attribution of climate change: from global to regional;
– Information from paleoclimate archives;
– Evaluation of climate models & tendencies;
– Impacts of modes of climate variability: monsoon, ENSO, annular modes;
– Urban areas in the global change context;
– Natural and managed resources and systems, and their uses (freshwater resources; coastal systems and low-lying areas; food security and food production systems);
– Human health, well-being, and security (human health: impacts, adaptation, and co-benefits; human security; livelihoods and poverty);
– Adaptation (adaptation needs and options; adaptation planning and implementation; adaptation opportunities, constraints, and limits; economics of adaptation);
– Agriculture, forests and other land uses;
– Consequences on ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services provision;
– Drivers, trends, and mitigation;
– Energy systems;
– The Paris Agreement: Are 1.5°C a reasonable limit? – a debate.
– The IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report: What’s in it for Latin America?
– Turn down the heat: climate extremes, regional impacts, and the case for resilience (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and Climate Analytics, 2013)
– Herring, S. C., M. P. Hoerling, T. C. Peterson, and P. A. Stott, Eds., 2014: Explaining Extreme Events of 2013 from a Climate Perspective. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95 (9), S1–S96.
– Herring, S. C., M. P. Hoerling, J. P. Kossin, T. C. Peterson, and P. A. Stott, Eds., 2015: Explaining Extreme Events of 2014 from a Climate Perspective. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 96 (12), S1–S172.
– Herring, S. C., A. Hoell, M. P. Hoerling, J. P. Kossin, C. J. Schreck III, and P. A. Stott, Eds., 2016: Explaining Extreme Events of 2015 from a Climate Perspective. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 97 (12), S1–S145.
Iracema F. de Albuquerque Cavalcanti
– Collins, W. J., Bellouin, N., Doutriaux-Boucher, M., Gedney, N., Halloran, P., Hinton, T., Hughes, J., Jones, C. D., Joshi, M., Liddicoat, S., Martin, G., O’Connor, F., Rae, J., Senior, C., Sitch, S., Totterdell, I., Wiltshire, A., and Woodward, S.: Development and evaluation of an Earth-System model – HadGEM2, Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 1051-1075.
– Jiang, J. H., et al. (2012), Evaluation of cloud and water vapor simulations in CMIP5 climate models using NASA “A-Train” satellite observations, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D14105, doi:10.1029/2011JD017237.
– Mehran, A., A. AghaKouchak, and T. J. Phillips (2014), Evaluation of CMIP5 continental precipitation simulations relative to satellite-based gauge-adjusted observations, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 1695–1707, doi:10.1002/2013JD021152.
– Sillmann, J., V. V. Kharin, X. Zhang, F. W. Zwiers, and D. Bronaugh (2013), Climate extremes indices in the CMIP5 multimodel ensemble: Part 1. Model evaluation in the present climate, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 1716–1733, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50203.
– Voldoire, A., Sanchez-Gomez, E., Salas y Mélia, D. et al. Clim Dyn (2013) 40: 2091. doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1259-y
– IPCC, 2013: Annex I: Atlas of Global and Regional Climate Projections Supplementary Material RCP8.5 [van Oldenborgh, G.J., M. Collins, J. Arblaster, J.H. Christensen, J. Marotzke, S.B. Power, M. Rummukainen and T. Zhou (eds.)]. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Available from www.climatechange2013.org and www.ipcc.ch.
– Flato, G., J. Marotzke, B. Abiodun, P. Braconnot, S.C. Chou, W. Collins, P. Cox, F. Driouech, S. Emori, V. Eyring, C. Forest, P. Gleckler, E. Guilyardi, C. Jakob, V. Kattsov, C. Reason and M. Rummukainen, 2013: Evaluation of Climate Models. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
– Collins, M., R. Knutti, J. Arblaster, J.-L. Dufresne, T. Fichefet, P. Friedlingstein, X. Gao, W.J. Gutowski, T. Johns, G. Krinner, M. Shongwe, C. Tebaldi, A.J. Weaver and M. Wehner, 2013: Long-term Climate Change: Projections, Commitments and Irreversibility. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
– Christensen, J.H., K. Krishna Kumar, E. Aldrian, S.-I. An, I.F.A. Cavalcanti, M. de Castro, W. Dong, P. Goswami, A. Hall, J.K. Kanyanga, A. Kitoh, J. Kossin, N.-C. Lau, J. Renwick, D.B. Stephenson, S.-P. Xie and T. Zhou, 2013: Climate Phenomena and their Relevance for Future Regional Climate Change. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
Maria de Fatima Andrade
– Hoornweg, D., Sugar, L. Trejos Gomez, C.L. 2011. Cities and greenhouse gas emissions: moving forward. Environment and Urbanization. Vol 23(2). doi:10.1177/0956247810392270
– Lamarque, J.-F., Bond, T. C., Eyring, V., Granier, C., Heil, A., Klimont, Z., Lee, D., Liousse, C., Mieville, A., Owen, B., Schultz, M. G., Shindell, D., Smith, S. J., Stehfest, E., Van Aardenne, J., Cooper, O. R., Kainuma, M., Mahowald, N., McConnell, J. R., Naik, V., Riahi, K., and van Vuuren, D. P.: Historical (1850–2000) gridded anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of reactive gases and aerosols: methodology and application, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 7017-7039, doi:10.5194/acp-10-7017-2010, 2010.
– B.R. Gurjar, T.M. Butler, M.G. Lawrence, J. Lelieveld, Evaluation of emissions and air quality in megacities, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 42, Issue 7, 2008, Pages 1593-1606, ISSN 1352-2310.
– Janusz Cofala, Markus Amann, Zbigniew Klimont, Kaarle Kupiainen, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Scenarios of global anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants and methane until 2030, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 41, Issue 38, 2007, Pages 8486-8499, ISSN 1352-2310.
– Butler Timothy M., Lawrence Mark G. (2009) The influence of megacities on global atmospheric chemistry: a modelling study. Environmental Chemistry 6, 219-225.Butler Timothy M., Lawrence Mark G. (2009) The influence of megacities on global atmospheric chemistry: a modelling study. Environmental Chemistry 6, 219-225.
– J. Jason West , Steven J. Smith ,Raquel A. Silva Vaishali Naik Yuqiang Zhang Zachariah Adelman Meridith M. Fry Susan Anenberg Larry W. Horowitz Jean-Francois Lamarque. Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health. Nature Climate Change 3, 885–889 (2013) doi:10.1038/nclimate2009.
– V.Ramanathan, G. Carmichael. Global and regional climate changes due to black carbono. Nature Geoscience 1, 221 – 227 (2008). doi:10.1038/ngeo156.
– Bond, T. C., et al. (2013), Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 5380–5552, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50171.
Gerardo M. E. Perillo
– Perillo, G. M.E. 1995. Definitions and geomorphologic classifications of estuaries. In Geomorphology and Sedimentology of Estuaries, G. M. E. Perillo (ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier, 17-47.
– Coastal Wetlands: A Synthesis
– Perillo G. M.E. and Piccolo M. C. 2011. Global Variability in Estuaries and Coastal Settings. In Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science. Waltham: Academic Press, 7–36.
– Syvitski, J., et al. 2005. Dynamics of the coastal zone. Coastal Fluxes in the anthropocene, 39-94.
– Zilio, M. I., London, S., Perillo, G. M., & Piccolo, M. C. 2013. The social cost of dredging: the Bahia Blanca Estuary case. Ocean & coastal management, 71, 195-202.xxxxxx
– Zilio, M. I., Alfonso, M. B., Ferrelli, F., Perillo, G. M., & Piccolo, M. C. 2017. Ecosystem services provision, tourism and climate variability in shallow lakes: The case of La Salada, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Tourism Management, 62, 208-217.
– London, S., et al. 2017. Characterization of an artisanal fishery SES in Argentina using the Ostrom’s framework. International Journal of the Commons, 11, 1-69.
– Cisneros, M. A. H., Sarmiento, N. V. R., Delrieux, C. A., Piccolo, M. C., & Perillo, G. M. 2016. Beach carrying capacity assessment through image processing tools for coastal management. Ocean & Coastal Management, 130, 138-147.
– Waylen, K. 2015. Can scenario-planning support community-based natural resource management? Experiences from three countries in Latin America. Ecology and Society, 20.
Maria Carmen Lemos
– Differentiating capacities as a means to sustainable climate change adaptation (Eakin et al. 2014)
– Case Study and Analogue Methodologies in Climate Change Vulnerability Research (Ford et al. 2010)
– Linking development to climate adaptation: Leveraging generic and specific capacities to reduce vulnerability to drought in NE Brazil (Lemos et al. 2016)
Christopher E. Kutarna
– Short essay: Pessimism is rife, optimism naive. Activism is the best tool for now
The School aims to contribute to the training of graduate students in the area of climate change. The school will foster the exchange of knowledge from many disciplines and sectors, among the participants and with School lecturers and organizers. It will also promote the development of collaborative networks to gather a critical mass of young scientists interested in climate change and its impacts on ecosystems and society.
Environmental research is complex and involves a variety of topics, such as water, land, biodiversity, pollution, food security. Climate change adds to the complexity and enhances the discussion of environmental problems. It requires more comprehensive and interdisciplinary studies to aid decision-making and actions needed for the benefit of the planet and society. Because of its overarching importance, climate change has been constantly in the public eye, especially since the creation of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)in 1988. Programs have been established to foster climate change studies in many countries. Examples of research programs on climate change in Brazil are: FAPESP Research Program on Global Climate Change (RPGCC), the Brazilian Research Network on Global Climate Change (Rede Clima), el Panel Brasileño sobre Cambio Climático (PBMC), the Brazilian Panel on Climate Change (PBMC), and the INCT for Climate Change (INCT-MC). In the Brazilian academic field, research groups, such as INCLINE, have contributed to the discussion of climate change sciences with contributions from many scientists and universities in the country.
To provide graduate students with advanced knowledge on climate change science and related topics: Observations and future projections; impacts; vulnerability; adaptation and mitigation; and the Paris Agreement: how to reach the 1.5°C target, including aspects of public policy. Participants will discuss with renowned scientists important themes of the three IPCC Fifth Assessment Report Working Groups, in a multidisciplinary and multicultural context.